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Automatic Wire-cutting Machines

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Example of an Automatic Wire Cutter

At home, there are plenty of tools that can be used to slice up long pieces of wire. A pair of pliers, for instance, can comfortably cut about any length of wire depending on factors such as the size of the pliers and the amount of effort used.

However, when great precision is required, a pair of pliers would be the wrong tool to use, and this is mainly because of our human error. In industries, special kinds of machines enable effective cutting of wires with minimal help from a human being.

For smaller industries, automatic wire-cutting machines prove to be a cheaper, faster, and easier way of cutting wires. Though they cannot be compared to the ones used in large industries, their capabilities extend far beyond what a mere pair of pliers can do.

Types of Wire-cutting Machines

Automatic wire-cutting machines are categorized depending on the size of wire they can cut. In most cases, the hook-up wire and the flexible tubing are the two things that can give you an estimate of the kinds of wire that can be cut by the machine.

Different manufacturers will come with various types of wire-cutting machines that have some special features, but the only distinct features that they have are usually the kinds of wire that they cut.

Features of an Automatic Wire-cutting Machine

Batch Wire-cutting
Batch wire-cutting involves the cutting of several lengths of wires simultaneously. Automatic wire-cutting machines with this feature are far better than those that can only cut a single length of wire within at any one time.

Programmable Count
When dealing with several pieces of wire, it is possible that you may want to know how many wires have been processed and how many are left unprocessed. An automatic wire cutter that has this feature enables you to know the precise number of cut and uncut wires so that you won’t be burdened with the task of having to count the wires yourself.

Cut-to-length
This feature enables you to choose the length of wires that you require. Some automatic cutters additionally make it possible to have a variety of lengths of wire such that some of the wires can be cut shorter than the rest.

What to Look For When Buying an Automatic Wire-cutting Machine

Besides the three features of a wire-cutting machine that we’ve looked at, there are quite a number of things that also need to be considered before purchasing the machine.

1. Size
A typical automatic wire-cutting machine spans a length of about seven inches in length, width, and height. More complex wire-cutting machines can be about 60 inches long, but this additionally gives them more functionality such as improved accuracy.

The size of the wire-cutting machine should be directly proportional to the amount of work that you intend to use it for. This prevents you from overburdening the machine.

2. Amount of Power Required
In the United States, most basic wire-cutting machines only require the regular 120V supply. More demanding wire-cutting machines may require slightly higher amounts of voltage than this in order to operate, but for small workshops, a voltage supply of 120V would be sufficient.

3. Microprocessor Specifications
A microprocessor makes it possible for the wire-cutting machine to do all its tasks automatically.

An automatic wire-cutting machine with a faster microprocessor can handle more instructions and consequently improve the overall efficiency of the machine.

4. Cut Length
Under cut length, there are two main things that you should consider. These are cut length mode and cut length accuracy.

The cut length mode allows you to switch between metric units and imperial units.
The cut length accuracy, on the other hand, gives you a rough idea of the amount of error you should expect when using the wire-cutting machine.
You should make sure that this value is below 5% so that your wires do not end up being uneven.

5. Maximum batch quantity
If you were planning on cutting hundreds of wires at the same time, you should remember to ask about the maximum batch quantity since it determines the number of wires that can be cut simultaneously.

Advantages of Automatic Wire-cutting machines

Besides the convenience that they offer, wire-cutting machines make things much simpler. The kind of work that would be required by a bunch of men can easily be done in some hours with an automatic wire-cutting machine. More at http://www.eraser.com/wire-cable-tubing-cutters/.

X-ray Detectors in Analytical Electron Microscopes

A technique for experimentally determining the efficiency function of x-ray detectors in electron beam instruments is described. Submicron spheres of pure materials (elements or stoichiometric compounds) produced by a process called electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHD), are used as calibration samples. The main objective of this work is to develop a technique for routine determination of a detector efficiency function, DEF, as a basis for composition determination with x-ray data. This is accomplished by using a single sample containing different elements in spherical form to measure the DEF at discrete energies throughout a detector’s range.

In this work the different terms involved in the expression that relates the detector efficiency to the production rate of x-rays in thin spheres are determined. These include: (a) Derivation of the conventional absorption and fluorescence corrections for thin spheres and comparing them with previous results for thin foils. Both sphere corrections are found to be less severe compared to films. It is also found that for submicron spheres both corrections can be safely neglected. (b) Modification of the absorption and fluorescence corrections for films and spheres to account for detector geometry. The absorption and fluorescence corrections for spheres are found to be insensitive to detector geometry. This advantage adds to the many advantages for using spheres to calibrate the DEF. (c) Experimental determination of the x-ray depth distribution function, $\phi$($\rho$z), of thin spheres of five elements dispersed in the periodic table (namely Al, V, Ni, Pd and W) by using a tracer technique. The tracer-technique results were empirically fit to a general expression for $\phi$($\rho$z) for thin spheres. and (d) Theoretical determination of the x-ray distribution function using a Monte Carlo technique. The Monte Carlo results were found to be sensitive to the parameters used in the stopping power and inner-shell ionization-cross section models.

The technique was tested using an HB501 dedicated STEM interfaced with a lithium-drifted silicon x-ray detector. The results show that the detector efficiency curve constructed is sensitive to the parameters used for the ionization cross-section expression. The ionization cross-section parameters by Mott and Massey were found to produce a DEF curve that agrees well with the theoretical DEF curve. This technique for determining composition should work well if more accurate values for the ionization cross-section are determined.

Ultra Fast Framing Cameras

Two types of framing camera have been developed each capable of framing rates of 3 frames per nanosecond with spatial resolution of 9 lppmm at a modulation transfer function greater than 0.1. The camera have static resolution of 18 lppmm.

Both cameras are based on image converter tubes and operate by successively moving and holding still the electron beam to produce a sequence of images at the screen. The main difference between the cameras is in the design of their electron beam deflection structures and the voltage wave forms required to drive them. Both are travelling wave deflection structures and the first, called type I, is a helical deflection structure formed in strip line construction with an electrical rise time (10% to 90%) of 70ps requiring a staircase voltage waveform to produce frames. The second, Type II, is a novel design which requires only a single voltage step to produce frames. It is formed in strip line and coaxial cable construction and also has an electrical rise time of 70ps.

The theory of deflection by such structures is given in the thesis as are the results of computer modelling and their detailed design considerations. The computer model agrees with experimental results fairly well and gives the theoretical limit on interframe time and resolution as 300ps and 9 lppmm at MTF = 0.1. The voltage wave forms for both cameras were produced using silicon Auston switches driven by short laser pulses.

The first type of camera was used to study the six beam laser compression of microballoon targets by framing x-ray shadowgraphy with an interframe of 500ps. The resolution at this interframe time was shown to be limited by the pinhole camera aperture to 10$\mu$m in the image plane (4 lppmm at the cathode). The photographs showed symmetrical structure commensurate with the non-uniform illumination of the target by the six beams. The results were compared with “Medusa” computer simulations and a critical comparison made between framing camerastudies and other methods of studying such compressions.

Bifocal Contact Lenses

The performance of bifocal contact lenses was studied in vivo and in vitro. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the lenses to be used in the long-term study. In the long-term study four types of contact lenses were fitted to each of 10 patients to assess the optical performance. Included in the study were single vision soft contact lenses for monovision, the Alges bifocal, the Nissel PS45 lens and the Diffrax lens.

A series of tests was carried out on thelenses after one and two months established wear, and also with their spectacle correction. These included assessment of visual acuity under different testing conditions, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis. A simultaneous practitioner grading of the physiological response to the lenses and patient subjective assessment of the lenses was also carried out. The physiological response to all lenses was acceptable.

Although the visual performance with thelenses at distance and near was satisfactory, monovision and spectacles gave better monocular results in most cases. The binocular performance with the five modes of correction showed no statistically significant differences apart from stereopsis which was significantly worse with monovision. This suggests that bifocal contact lenses are a viable option for the presbyopic contact lens wearer. In vitro studies were also carried out. These included interferometry and transverse power measurements on several of the available lenses. The results suggest that some improvements could be made in the design of certain lenses.

Super-8 Rotating Prism Optics

This article is an attempt to design a combined cinematographic machine which can expose and project Super-8 “home-movies”.

The considerations for the optical components and the mechanical film transport system are fundamental. They are also applicable to larger systems, such as 16 mm, however the necessity for a projector-camera combination for professional cinematography is doubtful.

A rotating prism optics continuous film motion system has been designed to overcome the problems of the prevailing intermittent motion systems.

A stroboscopic light source has been tested to replace the tungsten filament lamp as the projection light source.

The above two objectives were met only with limited success due to technical difficulties beyond the scope of this project.

The combination was proven to be feasible.

At present, the simplest way to achieve the objective would be to design the machine based on conventional systems.

Cartridge projection has been recommended because of its simplicity of operation.

A scheme for the combination device as well as recommendations for a future prototype has been proposed.

Elements in Micro-optics

Micro-optics is a modern research subject involving miniaturized optical elements, materials and fabrication methods, integration of optical elements, and the theory of the propagation of light through and around these novel elements. Diffractive optics means the control of electromagnetic wave propagation by microstructured media. Diffractive optical elements are some of the most important components in micro-optics because of their versatility and flat structure.

The dissertation overviews the author’s work on diffractive optics and micro-optics reported in seven original papers published in Applied Optics, Applied Physics Letters, Electronics Letters, Optical Engineering, and Optics Letters. It also includes some yet unpublished work and some results from other related publications. First, an overview of diffractive optics, especially, the basis of computer-synthetized diffractive elements, and three methods of implementing micro-optical systems, namely, integrated optics, stacked planar optics, and planar-integrated opticsare presented.

Then the idea of computer-generated guided-wave holography is proposed for wavefront synthesis in integrated optics. A review of numerical analysis and experimental results is presented. Then ion-exchange methods for the generation of computer-synthetized diffractive elements in integrated optics (by potassium and silver double ion exchange) and in stacked planar optics (thermal and electric-field assisted ion exchange) are proposed and demonstrated.

The refractive index structure in a glass substrate is modulated by an exchange process of ions within and outside the substrate. One subject of the dissertation is subwavelength-period waveguide gratings, which features an interesting property: at a certain wavelength there occurs a virtually complete exchange of energy between the incident wave and the backward-diffracted zeroth-order wave through the excitation of a guided wave.

The properties of the finite-aperture resonance filters are investigated by means of rigorous electro-magnetic theory and an approximate model. Finally, the theory and experiments of doubly grooved binary gratings are presented, which is a novel method of implementing high-efficiency beam deflection in the nonparaxial domain.